This paper was written for our Wales conference published originally in June 2016.

There is a need for modernisation and harmonisation. The current Directive (95/46/EC) dates from 1995 ( and was based on 1990 Commission proposal). There have been rapid technological developments and the scale of data sharing and collection has increased dramatically. Intelligent technology allows private and state use of personal data on an unprecedented scale. There is a wide variation in national implementation of Directive 95/46/EC , and a need to do away with legal uncertainty and current costly fragmentation.